can manipulate shapes representing grammatical relationships such as verbs and conjunctions, were implemented first on paper and only later in computer code. The user can intervene in various ways, but all paths lead to an explosion at the end, a programming choice that maintains intact the Aristotelian plot shape of a beginning, middle and end. Noah Wardrip-Fruin and Pat Harrigan (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass, 2004. In a special issue of The Iowa Review Web guest-edited by Rita Raley, ( Note 24 ) these artists comment on their work and the transformative impact of the Z-axis. Note 39 Janet Murray, Hamlet on the Holodeck: The Future of Narrative in Cyberspace (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1998. Note 34 Rita Raley discussed Torus in the broader context of digital works using haptic and proprioceptive stimuli in "Reading Spaces Modern Language Association Convention, Washington DC, December 28, 2005. Electronic literature, generally considered to exclude print literature that has been digitized, is by contrast "digital born a first-generation digital object created on a computer and (usually) meant to be read on a computer. ( Note 23 ) Rather than striving to progress by solving various puzzles and mysteries, the interactor discovers that the goal is not reaching the end (although there is a final screen providing historical context for the visual narrative) but rather the journey itself.
The program issues replies (when the output refers to the player character) and reports (responses directed to the interactor, asking for example if she is sure she wants to quit). More encompassing, and even more visionary, is the proposal in "Born-Again Bits" for the "X-Literature Initiative." The basic premise is that XML (Extensible Markup Language) will continue to be the most robust and widespread form of Web markup language into the foreseeable future. The results were published in Steve Moline, I See What You Mean; Visual literacy K-8 (Stenhouse, 1995, rev. Ese will be the years you look back on fondly. How to maintain such conventional narrative devices as rising tension, conflict, and denouement in interactive eco-crime and justice essays on environmental crime forms where the user determines sequence continues to pose formidable problems for writers of electronic literature, especially narrative fiction. What is a Genre? Note 79 Robert Kendall, "Faith ELC 1; also Cauldron and Net, 4 (Autumn 2002).
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